Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate. In general, a resting heart rate over 100 beats per minute is accepted as tachycardia in adults. Heart rates above the resting rate may be normal (such as with exercise) or abnormal (such as with electrical problems within the heart).
Bradycardia is a condition wherein an individual has a slow heart rate, typically defined as a resting heart rate of under 60 beats per minute (BPM) in adults. Bradycardia typically does not cause symptoms until the rate drops below 50 BPM. When symptomatic, it may cause fatigue, weakness, dizziness, sweating, and at very low rates, fainting.
During sleep, a slow heartbeat with rates around 40–50 BPM is common, and is considered normal. Highly trained athletes may also have athletic heart syndrome, a very slow resting heart rate that occurs as a sport adaptation and helps prevent tachycardia during training. The term relative bradycardia is used in explaining a heart rate that, although not actually below 60 BPM, is still considered too slow for the individual's current medical condition.